Alphabet of Programming Languages

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AWK

  • Year: 1977
  • Developed by: Alfred V. Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, and Brian W. Kernighan
  • The language’s name came from the first letter of their last names
  • Used for:
    • Text processing
    • Data extraction
    • Reporting

BASIC

  • Year: 1964
  • Developed by: John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz
  • Acronym that stands for Beginner’s All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
  • Used for:
    • General purpose

C

  • Year: 1969-1973
  • Developed by: Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs
  • A general purpose compiled programming language that is still one of the most widely used languages in the world
  • Used for:
    • General purpose

Delphi

  • Year: 1995
  • Developed by: Borland
  • Based on Object Pascal language
  • Used for:
    • Rapid application development for
      • Desktop
      • Mobile
      • Web
      • Console software

Elixir

  • Year: 2011
  • Developed by: Plataformatec
  • Functional programming language run on Erlang virtual machine or BEAM platform
  • Used for:
    • Web development

 

Frink

  • Year: N/A
  • Developed by: Alan Eliasen
  • Named after Professor John Frink, a character from the long-running Simpsons television show
  • Used for:
    • Simplifying physical calculations

Go

  • Year: 2009
  • Developed by: Google
  • Public, open-source language with a built-in concurrency and garbage collector
  • Used for:
    • Operation with multi-core processors

Haskell

  • Year: 1990
  • Developed by: Peyton Jones, Paul Hudak, Philip Wadler, John Hughes
  • Named after logician Haskell Curry
  • Used for:
    • Concurrent programming

iOS/Swift

  • Year: 2014
  • Developed by: Apple
  • Fast, powerful interactive language
  • Used for:
    • Development of applications for
      • iOs
      • macOS

JavaScript

  • Year: 1997
  • Developed by: Brendan Eich of Netscape Communications
  • One of the most popular languages used in recent years
  • Used for:
    • Dynamic web development

Kotlin

  • Year: 2016
  • Developed by: JetBrains
  • Ranked second as the most loved programming language in 2018
  • Used for:
    • General purpose language for
      • JVM
      • Android

Lisp

  • Year: 1958
  • Developed by: John McCarthy at MIT
  • One of the oldest high-level programming languages
  • Used for:
    • Artificial intelligence research

MATLAB

  • Year: 1984
  • Developed by: Cleve Moler at the University of New Mexico
  • Matlab is short for matrix laboratory
  • Used for:
    • Processing, evaluating and graphical displaying numerical data

Nemerle

  • Year: 2003
  • Developed by: Kamil Skalski, Michał Moskal, Prof. Leszek Pacholski, Paweł Olszta at Wrocław University
  • Named after a character in the science fiction classic The Wizard of Earthsea by Ursula K. Le Guin
  • Used for:
    • General purpose functional
    • Imperative and object-oriented program for .net platform

Opal

  • Year: N/A
  • Developed by: Technical University of Berlin
  • Stands for Optimized Applicative Language
  • Used for:
    • Object-oriented design

Python

  • Year: 1991
  • Developed by: Guido van Rossum, a Dutch computer programmer
  • Open-source, interpreted, easy to use programming language often used by beginner developers
  • Used for:
    • High-level, general purpose programming

Q

  • Year: 2003
  • Developed by: Kx Systems
  • Layered onto K, Q is a proprietary array processing language
  • Used for:
    • Vector programming

Rust

  • Year: 2010
  • Developed by: Mozilla
  • Most loved programming language of 2016, 2017 and 2018, used by Coursera and Dropbox among others
  • Used for:
    • Systems programming

SQL

  • Year: 1974
  • Developed by: Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce
  • SQL stands for Structured Query Language
  • Used for:
    • Managing and querying data in relational database management systems

Typescript

  • Year: 2012
  • Developed by: Microsoft
  • An augmentation of JavaScript, portable across browsers, devices, and operating systems
  • Used for:
    • Development of large applications

Ubercode

  • Year: 2005
  • Developed by: Ubercode Software
  • Easy to use, compatible language with automatic memory management
  • Used for:
    • High-level programming

Visual Basic

  • Year: 1991
  • Developed by: Alan Cooper
  • Easy to learn and use, VB inherits many features from BASIC
  • Used for:
    • High-level object-oriented rapid application development

Windows Powershell

  • Year: 2006
  • Developed by:
  • Microsoft’s command line shell and scripting language, released in 2006
  • Available with a number of Windows platforms
  • Used for:
    • System administration of Windows OS and applications that run on it

XL

  • Year: 2000
  • Developed by: Christophe de Dinechin
  • Stands for Extensible Language, XL is open source and simple to read and write
  • Used for:
    • Concept programming

YQL

  • Year: 2008
  • Developed by: Yahoo!
  • Allows developers to query, filter, and join data from different sources across the web
  • Used for:
    • Data retrieval and manipulation

ZIL

  • Year: Late 1970s
  • Developed by: Infocom
  • Short for Zork Implementation Language and based on MDL
  • Used for:
    • Creating text-based adventure games

Top 20 Most Popular Languages Used by Developers in 2018

  • JavaScript, 70% — most common language used for the 6th year in a row
  • HTML 69%
  • CSS 65%
  • SQL 57%
  • Java 45%
  • Bash/Shell 40%
  • Python 39%
  • C# 34%
  • PHP 31%
  • C++ 25%
  • C 23%
  • Typescript 17%
  • Ruby 10%
  • Swift 8%
  • Assembly 7%
  • Go %
  • Objective-C 7%
  • NET 7%
  • R 6%
  • Matlab 6%